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Основы маркетинга - Котлер Филип
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Глава 1 Социальные основы маркетинга:

удовлетворение людских потребностей

1 Peter F Drucker \"Management: Tasks, Responsibilities, Practices\" NY, \"Harper

2 А вот еще несколько определений: «Маркетинг - это деловая активность, посредством которой поток товаров и услуг направляется от производителя к потребителю или пользователю» «Маркетинг есть деятель ьность по обеспечению наличия нужных товаров и услуг для нужной аудитории в нужном месте, в нужное время, по подходящей цене при осуществлении необходимой коммуникации и мер по стимулированию сбыта »« Маркетинг - это создание и поддержание обеспеченности уровня жизни »».

3 См.: Кеlvin J Lanсastег \"A New Approach to Consumer Theory\" - Journal of Political Economy 14, 1966, p 132-157

4 см также: Wroe Alderson \"Factors Governing the Development of Marketing Channels\" - \"Marketing Channels for Manufactured Products\" Ed Richard M Clewett Homewood, И И И \"Richard D Irwin\", 1957, p 21 11-214. 211—214.

5 cm \"Texas Instruments Shows US Business How to Survive in the 1980s\" Business Week September 18, 1978, p 66 ff, \"The Longterm Damage from TI's Bombshell\" - Business Week June 15, 1981, p 36

6 cm \"So We Made a Better Mousetra\" President's Forum Fall 1982, p 26-27

7 См.: Theodore Levitt \"Marketing Myopia\" - Harvard Business Review July-August 1960, p 45-56

8 См.: Irving J Rein \"Rudy's Red Wagon: Communication Strategies in Contemporary Society\" Glen view, III, Scott, \"Foresman\", 1972

9 CM: Joseph McGinness \"The Selling of the President\" NY, \"Trident Press\", 1969

10 См.: Theodore Levitt \"Marketing Myopia\" - Harvard Business Review July-August 1960, p 45-56

11 См.: Carlton P McNamara \"The Present Status of the Marketing Concept\" - Journal of Marketing January 1972, p 50-57

12 См.: Peter M Banting and Randolph E Ross \"The Marketing Masquerade\" - виляет Quarterly (Canada), Spring 1974, p 19-27 см также: Philip Коtler \"From Sales Obsession to Marketing Effectiveness\" - Harvard Business Review November-Dedember 1977, p 67-75

13 См.: Laurence P Feldman \"Societal Adaptation: A New Challenge for Marketing\" - Journal of Marketing July 1971, p 54-60, а также: Martin L Bell and C William Emery \"The Faltering Marketing Concept\" - Journal of Marketing October 1971, p 37-42

14 Концепция социально-этичного маркетинга известна под разными названиями См.: Leslie M Dawson \"The Human Concept: New Philosophy for Business\" - Business Horizons December 1969, p 29-38; James T Rothe and Lissa Benson Intelligent Consumption: An Attractive Alternative to Marketing Concept \"- MSU Business Topics Winter 1974 p 29-34; George Fisk \"Criteria for a Theory of Responsible Consumption\" - Journal of Marketing April 1973, p 24-31

15 См.: Richard D Farmer \"Would You Want Your Daughter to Marry a Marketing Man?\" - Journal of Marketing January 1967, p 1

16 См.: Sterling Hayden \"Wanderer\", NY, \"Knopf\" 1963

17 William J Stanton \"Fundamentals of Marketing\", 5-th ed NY, \"McGraw-Hill\", 1978, p 7

18 Sir Winston Churchill

19 См.: Ralph Z Sorenson II \"US Marketers Can Learn From European Innovators\" - Harvard Business Review September-October 1972, p 89-99

20 См.: Thomas V Greer \"Marketing in the Soviet Union\" NY, \"Holt, Rinehart

21см: Donald L Pike \"The Future of Higher Education: Will Private Institutions Disappear in the US?\" - Futurist December 1977, p 374

Глава 2 Процесс управления маркетингом

1 Добавлено автором по материалам нескольких источников, но в основном использован материал \"Turmoil among the Brewers: Miller's Fast Growth Upsets the Beer Industry Can It Topple the US Leader?\" - Business Week November 8, 1976, p 58-67

2 См.: Н Igor Ansoff \"Strategies for Diversification\" - Harvard Business Review September-October 1957, p 113-124

3 Этот пример описан в книге: Glen L Urban and John R Hauser \"Design and Marketing of New Products\" Englewood Cliffs, N, J, \"Prentice-Hall\", 1980, p 187, 221

4 Классификация с разбивкой на четыре группы была впервые предложена в книге: Е Jerome McCarthy \"Basic Marketing: A Managerial Approach\" Homewood, III, \"Richard D Irwin\", 1960

5 Более подробно об этом см в: \"General Foods Corporation: Post Division\" - \"Organization Strategy: A Marketing Approach\" Ed E Raymond Corey and Steven H Star Boston, Division of Research, Graduate S School of Business Administration Harvard University, 1971, p 201-230 201—230.

6 См.: David J Luck \"Interfaces of a Product Manager\" - Journal of Marketing October 1969, p 32-36

7 См.: В Charles Ames \"Dilemma of Product / Market Management\" - Harvard Business Review March-April 1971, p 66-74

Глава С Система маркетинговых исследований

и маркетинговой информации

1 Добавлено автором на основе \"Key Role of Research in Agree's Success is Tol\" - Marketing News January 12, 1979

2 Определение дается на основе \"Marketing Information Systems: An Introductory Overview\" - \"Readings in Marketing Information Systems\" Ed Samuel V Smith, Richard H Brien and James E Stafford Boston \"Houghton Mifllin\", 1969, p 79, p. 7.

3 См.: Dick Warren Twedt, ed »1978 Survey of Marketing Research\", Chicago, American Marketing Association, 1978

4 см например: Paul E Green and Donald S Tull \"Research for Marketing Decisions\", 4th ed Englewood Cliffs, NJ, \"Prentice-Hall\", 1978

5 См.: Andris A Zoltners and P Sinha \"Integer Programming Models for Sales Resource Allocation\" - Management Science March 1980, p 242-260

6 См.: Т E Hlavac, Jr, and JDC Little \"A Geographic Model of an Automobile Market\", - Working Paper № 186-66 Cambridge, Massachusettes Institute of Technology, Alfred P Sloan School of Management, 1966

7 См.: John DC Little and Leonard M Lodish \"A Media Planning Calculus\" - Operations Research January-February 1969, p 1-35

8 См.: Glen L Urban and John R Hauser \"Design and Marketing of New Products\" Englewood Cliffs, NJ, \"Prentice-Hall\", 1980

9 Прекрасный аннотированный перечень основных источников деловой и маркетинговой информации дается в книге: Thomas С Kinnear and James R Taylor \"Marketing Research: An Applied Approach\" NY, \"McGraw--Hill \", 1979, p 128-131, 138-17138—171.

10 Более подробно об исследованиях см в кн: Seymour Banks \"Experimentation in Marketing\" NY, \"McGraw-Hill\", 1965

11 Обзор применяемых в исследовательских целях механических устройств дается в книге: Roger D Blackwell, James S Hensel, Michael B Philips and Brian Sternthal \"Laboratory Equipment for Marketing Rese earch \"Dubuque, Iowa,\" Kendall / Hunt \", 1970, p 7-870, p. 7—8.

12см: Воbbу J Сa1deг, \"Focus Groups and the Nature of Qualitative Marketing Research\" - Journal of Marketing Research August, 1977, p 353 - 364

13 Описание лига с фирмой «Аллегени эйрлайнс» составлено на основе следующих материалов: Harry T Chandis \"The Birth of USAir\" - Marketing Communications January 1980, p 30-32; Grant F Winthrop \"Agony Airlines 'Becomes a High Flyer\" - Fortune June 30, 1980, p 104-108

Глава 4 Маркетинговая среда

1 см также: John Gruen \"Dancevision\" - Dance Magazine December 1982, p 91; Tom Nicholson \"Cable TV's First Casualty\" - Newsweek September 27, 1982, p 65, \"Sifting Through the Fallout of CBS Cable\" - Broadcasting September 27, 1982, p 28-30; Harry F Waters \"Culture Shock on Cable\" - Time, October 6, 1981

2 Данные, приводимые в этой главе, взяты из «Краткого статистического обзора США за 1982-1983 гг», а также ряда других источников

3 См.: Ellen Graham \"Advertisers Take Aim at a Neglected Market: The Working Woman\" - Wall Street Journal, July 5, 1977, p 1

4 CMA состоит из одного или нескольких смежных округов общей численностью населения, Euro 100 тыс. человек и центральным городом с населением, Euro 50 тыс. человек (или двумя близко расположенным мы друг к другу городами с общим числом жителей - 50 тыс. человек)к).

5 См.: Rachel Carson \"Silent Spring\" Boston, \"Houghton Mifflin\", 1962

6 \"First Annual Report of the Council on Environmental Quality\" Washington, DC, \"Government Printing Office\", 1970, p 158

7 \"The Coming Boom in Solar Energy\" - Business Week October 9, 1978, p 88-104

8 См.: Karl E Henion II \"Ecological Marketing\" Columbus, Ohio, \"Grid\", 1976

9 См.: Alvin Toffler \"Future Shock\" NY, \"Bantam\" 1970, p 25-30

10 Наиболее полный список возможных будущих товаров дан в книге: Dennis Gabor \"Innovations: Scientific, Technological and Social\" London, \"Oxford University Press\", 1970 см также: Charles Panat \"Brea akthroughs \"Boston,\" Houghton Mifflin \", 1980 и\" Technologies for the 80's \"’s”. — Business Week July 6, 1981, p 48 ff

11 См.: Dennis D Fisher \"Realemon Sales Tactics Hit\" - Chicago Sun-Times July 4, 1974

12 Leo Greenland \"Advertisers Must Stop Conning Customers\" - Harvard Business Review July-August 1974, p 18

13 См.: Edward Meadows \"Bold Departures in Antitrust\" - Fortune October 5, 1981, p 180-188

14 Bill Abrams «\" Middle Generation \"Growing More Concerned with Selves» - Wall Street Journal, January 21, 1982, p 25

Глава 5 Потребительские рынки

и покупательское поведение потребителей

1 Подготовлено автором на основе следующих материалов: \"The $ 100 Million Object Lesson\" - Fortune January 1971; \"The End of Corfam\" - Wall Street Journal, March 17, 1971, p 1

2 См.: \"Statistical Abstract of the United States\", 1980

3 См.: Kevin A Wall \"New Market: Among Blacks, the Haves Are Now Overtaking the Have-Nots\" - Advertising Age February 11, 1974, p 35-36; Mary Jane Schlinger and Joseph T Plummer \"Advertising in Black and White\" - Journal of Marketing Research May 1972, p 149-153; Raymond A Bauer and Scott M Cunningham \"The Negro Market\" - Journal of Advertising Research April 1970, p 3-12

4 Melvin Helitzer and Carl Heyel \"The Youth Market\" NY, \"Media Books\", 1970, p 58; George W Schiele \"How to Reach the Young Consumer\" - Harvard Business Review March-April 1974, p 77-86

5 См.: \"The Graying of America\" ??- Newsweek February 28, 1977, p 50-65

6 См.: Rena Bartos \"What Every Marketer Should Know about Women\" - Harvard Business Review May-June 1978, p 73-85

7 См.: AH Kizilbash and ET Garman \"Grocery Retailing in Spanish Neighborhoods\" - Journal of Retailing Winter 1975-76, p 15-22 ff

8 См.: Leon G Schiffman and Leslie Lazar Kanuk \"Consumer Behavior\" Englewood Cliffs, NJ, \"Prentice-Hall\", 1978, p 343-356

9 См.: Harry L Davis \"Decision Making within the Household\" - Journal of Consumer Research March 1976, p 241-260; Harry L Davis and Benny P Rigaux \"Perception of Marital Roles in Decision Processes\" - Journal of Consumer Research June 1974 p 51-60; Harry L Davis \"Dimensions of Marital Roles in Consumer Decision-Making\" - Journal of Marketing Research May 1970, p 168-177

10 См.: \"Flaunting Wealth: It's Back in Style\" - US News September 21, 1981, p 61-64

11 CM: Gail Sheehy \"Passages: Predictable Crises in Adult Life\" NY, \"Dutton\", 1974; Roger Gould \"Transformations\" NY, \"Simon

12 См.: Raymond L Horton \"Some Relationships Between Personality and Consumer Decision-Making\" - Journal of Marketing Research May, 1979, p 244-245

13 Более подробно об этом можно прочесть в следующих работах: Edward L Grubb and Harrison L Grathwohl \"Consumer Self-Concept, Symbolism, and Market Behavior: A Theoretical Approach\" - Journal of Marketing October 1967, p 22-27; Ira J Dolich \"Congruence Relationships Between Self-images and Product Brands\" - Journal of Marketing Research February 1969, p 40-47; E Laird Landon, Jr \"The Differential Role of Self-Concept and Ideal Self-Concept in Consumer Purchase Behavior\" - Journal of Consumer Research, September 1974, p 44-51

14 См.: Abraham H Maslow \"Motivation and Personality\" NY, \"Harper

15 Bernard Berelson and Gary A Steiner \"Human Behavior: An Inventory of Scientific Findings\" NY, \"Harcourt Brace Jovanovich\", 1964, p 88

16 Эта зависимость известна под названием закона Вебера, являющегося одним из основных законов психофизика

17 см: David Krech, Richard S Crutchfield and Egerton L Ballachey \"Individual in Society\" NY, \"McGraw-Hill\", 1962, ch 2

18 Теоретики маркетинга разработали несколько моделей процесса принятия потребителем решения о покупке Наиболее популярные модели описаны в следующих работах: John A Howard and Jagdish N Sheth \"The T Theory of Buyer Behavior \"New York,\" John Wiley \", 1969; Francesco M Nicosia\" Consumer Decision Processes \"Englewood Cliffs, NJ,\" Prentice-Hall \", 1966; James F Engel, Roger D Blackwell and David T Koll at \"Consumer Behavior\", 3d ed NY, \"Holt, Rinehart; Winston”, 1978.

19 См.: Chte L Narayana and Ron J Markin \"Consumer Behavior and Product Performance: An Alemrnative Conceptualization\" - Journal of Marketing October 1975, p 1-6 Упоминаемые здесь виды комплектов являются разработкой понятия «всплывающего в памяти комплекта», которое было впервые предложено в работе JA Howard and JN Sheth \"The Theory of B Buyer Behavior \"Авторы определяли« всплывающей в памяти комплект »как комплект марок,« который являются альтернативными в процессе совершения покупательских выбора »ыбора».

20см: James H Myers and Mark L AIpert \"Semantic Confusion in Attitude Research: Salience vs Importance vs Determinance -\" Advances in Consumer Research \"Proceedings of the Seventh Annual Conference o of the Association of Consumer Research, October, 1976, p 106-110 106—110.

21 См.: Paul E Green and Yoram Wind \"Multiattribute Decisions in Marketing: A Measurement Approach\" Hinsdale, III, \"Dryden Press\", 1973, ch 2

22 См.: Jagdish N Sheth \"An Investigation of Relationships among Evaluative Beliefs, Affect, Behavioral Intention and Behavior\" - \"Consumer Behavior: Theory and Application\", ed John U Farley, John A Howard and L Winston Ring Boston, \"Allyn974, p. 89—114.

23 См.: Martin Fishbein \"Attitudes and Prediction of Behavior\" - \"Readings in Attitude Theory and Measurement\", ed Martin Fishbein NY, \"John Wiley\", 1967, p 477-492

24 См.: John E Swan and Linda Jones Combs \"Product Performance and Consumer Satisfaction: A New Concept\" - Journal of Marketing Research April 1976, p 25-33

25 См.: Everett M Rogers \"Diffusion of Innovation\" \"NY,\" Free Press \", 1962

26 См.: James Coleman, Elihu Katz and Herbert Menzel The \"Diffusion of an Innovation Among Physicians\" - Sociometry December 1957, p 253-270

27 См.: J Bohlen and G Beal \"How Farm People Accept New Ideas\" Special Report No15 Ames: Iowa State College Agricultural Extension Service, November 1955

28 См.: Elihu Katz and Paul F Lazarsfeld \"Personal Influence\" NY, \"Free Press\", 1955, p 234

Глава 6 Рынок предприятий

и поведение покупателей от имени предприятий

1 Часть материала взята из: \"The College Caterers are Dropping Out\" - Business Week April 23, 1979, p 36-37

2 Frederick E Webster, Jr and Yoram Wind \"Organizational Buying Behavior\" Englewood Cliffs, NJ:, \"Prentice-Hall\", 1972, p 2

3 Patrick J Robinson, Charles W Paris and Yoram Wind \"Industrial Buying and Creative Marketing\" Boston, \"Allyn Bacon \", 1967

4 Webster and Wind Op cit, p 6

5 Ibid, p 78-80

6 См.: Murray Harding \"Who Really Makes the Purchasing Decision?\" - Industrial Marketing September 1966, p 76 Дальнейшее развитие эта точка зрения получила в работе: Ernest Dichter «Industrial Buying is Based on Same\" Only Human \"Emotional Factors that Motivate Consumer Market's Housewife e »-. — Industrial Marketing February 1973, p 14-16

7 Webster and Wind Op cit, p 33-37

8 Robinson, Faris and Wind Op cit, p 14

9 Albert W Frey \"Marketing Handbook\", 2d ed NV, \"Ronald Pres\", 1965, p 21

10 См.: Leonard Groeneveld \"The Implications of Blanket Contracting for Industrial Purchasing and Marketing\" - Journal of Purchasing November 1972, p 51-58; H Lee Mathews, David T Wilson and Klaus Backhaus \" Selling to the Computer Assisted Buyer \"- Industrial Marketing Management 6,1977, p 307-315

11 См.: Stanley E Cohen \"Looking in the US Government Market\" - Industrial Marketing September 1964, p 129-138

12 см \"Out of the Maze\" - Sales and Marketing Management April 9, 1979

Глава 7 Сегментирование рынка

выбор целевых сегментов и позиционирование товара

1 Добавлено автором на основе: \"Coke's Big Marketing Blitz\" - Business Week May 30, 1983, p 58-64

2 cm \"RJ Reynolds Stops a Slide in Market Share\" - Business Week January 26, 1976, p 92

3cm \"Can the Baby Toy Market be Segmented 12 Ways?\" - Business Week February 14, 1977, p 62

4 См.: Joseph T Plummer \"Life Style Patterns: New Constraint for Mass Communications Research\" - Journal of Broadcasting Winter 1971/72, p 79-89

5 Цитируется по: Franklin B Evans \"Psychological and Objective Factors in the Prediction of Brand Choke; Ford Versus Chevrolet\" - Journal of Business October 1959, p 340-369

6 Ralph Westfall \"Psychological Factors in Predicting Product Choice\" - Journal of Marketing April 1962, p 34-40

7 См.: Shirley Young \"The Dynamics of Measuring Unchange\" - \"Attitude Research in Transition\" Ed Russell I Haley Chicago, American Marketing Association, 1972, p 61-82

8 См.: Russell L Ackoff and James R Emshoff \"Advertising Research at Anheuser-Busch Inc (1968-1974)\" - Sloan Management Review Spring 1975, p 1-15

9см: Daniel Yankelovich \"New Criteria for Market Segmentation\" - Harvard Business Review March-April 1964, p 85

10 Frank M Bass, Douglas J Tigert and Ronald T Lonsdale \"Market Segmentation: Group versus Individual Behavior\" - Journal of Marketing Research August 1968, p 276

11 За основу взята классификация из серии статей: George H Brown \"Brand Loyalty - Fact or Fiction\" - Advertising Age June 1952 - January 1953

12 Более подробно о переменных сегментирования рассказано в работе: Ronald Frank, William Massy, ??and Yoram Wind Market Segmentation, Englewood Cliffs, NJ, Prentice-Hall, 1972

13 См.: Wendell R Smith \"Product Differentiation and Market Segmentation as Alternative Marketing Strategies\" - Journal of Marketing July 1966, p 3-8; Alan A Roberts \"Applying the Strategy of Market Segmentation\" - Business Horizons Fall 1961, p 65-72

14 Natalie McKelvy \"Shoes Make Edison Brothers a Big Name\" - Chicago Tribune February 23, 1979, Sec 5, p 9

15 R William Kotrba \"The Strategy Selection Chart\" - Journal of Marketing July 1966, p 22 -25

16 К подобным схемам следует относиться с осторожностью, поскольку в них отражены усредненные представления и не все в клиенты воспринимают товары именно таким образом

Глава 8 Разработка товаров:

товары, товарные марки, упаковка, услуги

1 см \"Marketing Definitions: A Glossary of Marketing Terms\", complied by the Committee on Definitions of the American Marketing Association Chicago, American Marketing Association, 1960

2 В комплектных продажах рассказано в гл 6

3 См.: Наrреr W Boyd, Jr and Sidney JLevy \"New Dimensions in Consumer Analysis\" - Harvard Business Review November-December 1963, p 129-40

4 Theodore Levitt \"The Marketing Mode\" NV, \"McGraw-Hill\", 1969, p 2

5 Все три определения приводятся в \"Marketing Definitions\" Op cit

6 Первые три определения можно найти в \"Marketing Definitions\" Op cit Более подробно об этой классификации см: Richard H Holton \"The Distinction between Convenience Goods, Shopping Goods and Special lty Goods \"Goods”. — Journal of Marketing July 1958, p 53-56; Gordon E Miracle \"Product Characteristics and Marketing Strategy\" - Journal of Marketing January 1965, p 18-24

7 Первые четыре определения можно найти в \"Marketing Definitions\" Op cit

8 См.: ВШ Paul \"It Isn't Chicken Feed to Put Your Brand on 78 Million Birds\" - Wall Street Journal, May 13, 1974, p 1

9 \"Research Suggests Consumers Will Increasingly Seek Quality\" - Walt Street Journal October 15, 1981, p 1

10 См.: Theodore R Gamble,, Brand Extension \"-\" Plotting Marketing Strategy \", ed Lee Adler NY,\" Simon Time, August 31, 1981, p 41-42

11 См.: Robert W Young \"Multibrand Entries\" Adler \"Plotting Marketing Strategy\", p 143-164

12 cm \"General Foods - Post Division (B)\" Case M-102, Havard Business School, 1964

13 \"Product Tryouts: Sales Tests in Selected Cities Help Trim Risks of National Marketing\" - Wall Street Journal, August 10, 1962, p 1

14 Peter G Banting \"Customer Service in Industrial Marketing: A Comparative Study\" - European Journal of Marketing 10, № 3, 1976, p 140

15 См.: Ralph S Alexander and Thomas L Berg \"Dynamic Management in Marketing\" Homewood, 111, \"Richard D Irwin\", 1965, p 419-428

16 См.: Benson P Shapiro \"Industrial Product Policy: Managing the Existing Product Line\" Cambridge, Mass, Marketing Science Institute, 1977, p 9-10

17 Это определение приводится в \"Marketing Definitions\" Op cit

Глава 9 Разработка товаров: подход к разработке

новых товаров и проблемам жизненного цикла товаров

1 Добавлено автором по материалам заметок профессора Гарольда В Фокса, а также на основе статей: \"Р Wall Street Journal, March 28, 1974 и \"In Spite of Huge Losses, Procter Gamble Tries Once More to Revive Pringle's Chips \"- Wall Street Journal October 7, 1981

2 David S Hopkins and Earl L Bailey \"New Product Pressures\" - Conference Board Record June 1971, p 16-24

3 См.: Edward M Tauber \"Forecasting Sales Prior to Test Market\" - Journal of Marketing January 1977, p 80-84, а также Robert Blattberg and John Golanty \"Tracker: An Early Test Market Forecasting and Diagnostic Model for New Product Planning\" - Journal of Marketing Research May 1978, p 192-202

4 См.: Roger A Kerin, Michael O Harvey and James T Rothe \"Cannibalism and New Product Development\" - Business Horizons October 1978, p 25-31

5Philip Kotler and Gerald Zaltman \"Targeting Prospects for a New Product\" - Journal of Advertising Research February 1976, p 7-20

6 William E Cox, Jr \"Product Life Cycles as Marketing Models\" - Journal of Business October 1967, p 375-384

7 Robert D Buzzell \"Competitive Behavior and the Product Life Cycle in New Ideas for Successful Marketing\", ed John S Wright and Jac L Goldstucker Chicago, American Marketing Association, 1966, p 51

8 Ibid, p 51

9 Ibid, p 52

10 Для проведения такого анализа употребляют несколько разных методик См.: Philip Kotler \"Phasing out Weak Products\" - Harvard Business Review March - April 1965, p 107-18, а также Paul W Hamelman and Edward M Mazze \"Improving Product Abandonment Decisions\" - Journal of Marketing April 1972, p 20-26

11 Более подробно о концепции жизненного цикла товара можно прочесть в следующих работах: Theodore Levitt \"Exploit the Product Life Cycle \"- Harvard Business Review November-December 1965, p 81-94; Nariman K Dhalla and Sonia Yuspeh \"Forget the Produkt Life Cycle Concept\" - Harvard Business Review January - February 1976, p 102-112 см также отдельный раздел, в Который включены статьи, касающиеся проблем жизненного цикла товара, в осеннем номере Journal of Marketing по 1981 год

Глава 10 Установление цен на товары:

задачи и политика ценообразования

1 Philip Kotler \"Marketing for Nonprofit Organizations\" Englewood Cliffs, NJ, \"Prentice-Hall\", 1982, p 303-304

2 David J Schwartz \"Marketing Today: a Basic Approach\", 3d ed NY, \"Harcourt Brace Jovanovich\", 1981, p 271

3 \"Departmental Merchandising and Operating Results of 1965\" NY, National Retail Merchants Association, 1965

4 Lee E Preston \"Profits, Competition and Rules of Thumb in Retail Food Pricing\" Berkeley University of California Institute of Business and Economic Research, 1963, p 31

5 Ibid, p 29-40

6 См.: Daniel A Nimer \"Pricing the Profitable Sales Has a Lot to Do With Perception\" - Scales Management May 19, 1975, p 13-14

7 Более подробно об этом см в статье: Edward R Hawkins \"Price Policies and Theory\" - Journal of Marketing January 1954 p 233-240

Глава 11 Установление цен на товары:

подходы к проблеме ценообразования

1 См.: Joel Dean Hall \",\" Managerial Economics \"Englewood Cliffs, NJ,\" Prentice-Hall \", 1951, p 420 ff

2 См.: George Sligler \"The Theory of Price\", rev ed NY, \"Macmillan\", 1952, p 215 ff

3 См.: \"Flexible Pricing\" - Business Week December 12, 1977, p 78-88

4 cm \"Pricing Strategy in an Inflation Economy\" - Business Week April 6, 1974, p 43-49

5 Norman H Fuss, Jr \"How to Raise Prices - Judiciously - to Meet Today's Conditions\" - Harvard Business Review May-June 1975, p 10 f

6 Прекрасный обзор дается в работе: Kent В Мonroe \"Buyers 'Subjective Perceptions of Price\" - Journal of Marketing Research February 1973, p 70-80

7 Alfred R Oxenfeldt \"Pricing for Marketing Executives\" San-Francisco, \"Wadsworth\", 1961, p 28

Глава 12 Методы распространения товаров:

каналы распределения и товародвижения

1 Добавлено автором на основе: Russell Leavitt \"Billions in Blossoms\" - Fortune May 18, 1981, p 68-75

2Перечны подобного рода приводятся также в работах: Edmund D McGarry \"Some Functions of Marketing Reconsidered\" - \"Theory in Marketing\", ed Reavis Cox and Wroe Alderson Homewood, 111, \"Richard D Irwi in \", 1950, p 269-273, а также Louis P Bucklin\" A Theory of Distribution Channel Structure \"Berkeley, Institute of Business and Economic Research, University of California, 1966, p 10-11, 1966, p. 10—11.

3Ronald Abler, John S Adams and Peter Gould \"Spatial Organization: the Geographer's View of the World\" Englewood Cliffs, NJ, \"Prentice-Hall\", 1971, p 531-532

4 William G Zikmund and William J Stanton \"Recycling Solid Wastes: a Channels - of - Distribution Problem\" - Journal of Marketing July 1971, p 34

5 Bert C McCammon, Jr \"Perspectives for Distribution Programming\" - \"Vertical Marketing Systems\", ed Louis P Bucklin Clenview, III \"Scott Foresman\", 1970, p 32-51

6 Ibid, p 45

7 См.: Robert E Weigand \"Fit Products and Channels to Your Markets\" - Harvard Business Review January-February 1977, p 95-105

8О работе дистрибьюторов товаров промышленного назначения можно прочесть в статье: Frederick E Webster, Jr \"The Role of Industrial Distributor\" - Journal of Marketing July 1976, p 10-16

9 См.: Bert Rosenbloom \"Marketing Channels: a Management View \"Hinsdale, III,\" Dryden Press \", 1978, p 192-203

10 См.: McCammon Perspectives for Distribution Programming, p 43

11 См.: В J LaLonde and PH Zinszer \"Customer Service: Meaning and Measurement\" Chicago, National Council of Physical Distribution Management, 1976

12 См.: Jurgen F Ringer and Charles D Howell \"The Industrial Engineer and Marketing\" - \"Industrial Engineering Handbook\" (2d ed), ed Harold Bright Maynard NY, \"McGraw-Hill\", 1963, p 10, 102-103

Глава 13 Методы распределения товаров:

розничная и оптовая торговля

1 Liz Roman Gallese The Cheese at Spag's Is Next to the Rugs - Over by the Golf Balls \"- Wall Street Journal, January 28, 1983, p 1, \"The Discount Twist in Suburban Shopping Malls\" - Business Week July 7, 1980, p 94-96; Walteг МсQuade \"The Man Who Makes Millions on Mistakes\" - Fortune September 6, 1982, p 106-116; John Merwin \"Lemons to Lemonade\" - Forbes August 30, 1982, p 60-61

2 \"Statistical Abstract of US\", 1982-1983

3 \"Standard and Poor's Industry Surveys\" - Retailing June 1983

4 John Dennis McDonald \"The Game of Business\", NY, \"Doubleday\", 1975, p 102

5 Phyllis Berman \"Too Big for Miracles\" - Forbes June 15, 1977, p 26

6 Ernest Samhaber \"Merchants Make History\" NY, \"Harper

7 цитируемая часть определения взята из работы: Walter J Salmon, Robert D Buzzell, Stanton G Cort, and Michael R Pearce \"The Super Store - Strategic Implications for the Seventies\" Cambridge, Mass, M Marketing Science Institute, 1972, p 83, p. 83.

8 см \"Supermarkets Eye The Sunbelt\" - Business Week September 27, 1976, p 61

9 \"Standard and Poor's Industry Surveys\" - Retailing June 1983

10 Salmonetal \"The Super Store\", p 4

11 Список особенностей в слегка измененний виде взят из работы: Ronald R Gist \"Retailing Concepts and Decisions\" NY, \"John Wiley\", 1968, p 45-46

12 \"Standard and Poor's Industry Surveys\" - Retailing June 1983

13 см: Jonathan N Goodrich and Jo Ann Hoffman \"Warehouse Retailing: The Trend of the Future\" - Business Horizons April 1979, p 45-50

14 \"Catalog Showroom Hot Retailer\" - Chicago Tribune December 6, 1978, Sec 4, p \"Standard and Poor's Industry Surveys\" - Retailing June 1983

15 Leo Bogart \"The Future in Retailing\" - Harvard Business Review November-December 1973, p 26

16 Belden Menkus \"Remote Retailing a Reality by 1985? - Chain Store Age Executive, September 1975, p 42

17 \"Millions by Mail\" - Forbes March 15, 1976, p 82

18 Прекрасный материал в методах и приемах «директ мейл» можно найти в работе: Bob Stone \"Successful Direct Marketing Methods\", 2nd, rev ed Chicago, \"Grain Books\", 1979

19 См.: GR Schreiber \"A Concise History of Vending In the USA\" Chicago, \"Vend\", 1961, p 9

20 См.: \"How the 'New Sell' is Raking in Billions\" - U S News May 8, 1978, p 74-75

21 См.: Ronald R Gist \"Marketing and Society: Text and Cases\", 2nd ed Hinsdale, III, \"Dryden Press\", 1974, p 334

22 См.: Rollie Tillman \"Rise of the Conglomerchant\" - Harvard Review November-December 1971, p 44-51

23 См.: Phyllis Berman \"Melville, Corp: Discounting with a Diflerence\" - Forbes April 16, 1979, p 93-94

24 Это определение, данное Институтом градостроительства, приводится в работе: Roger A Dickinson \"Retail Management: a Channels Approach\" Belmont, Calif \"Wadsworth\", 1974, p 9

25 David Elsner \"Shopping Center Boom Appears to Be Fading Due to Oberbuilding\" - Wall Street Journal September 7, 1976, p 1

26 Menkus \"Remote Retailing\", p 42

27 Более подробно об этом см также: Philip Kotler \"Atmospherics as a marketing Tool\" - Journal of Retailing Winter 1973/74, p 48-64

28 Harold Haydon \"Galleries: a Little Push Is Better That Too Much or No Promotion at All\" - Chicago Sun-Times October 30, 1970, p 55

29 см: David A Revzan \"Wholesaling in Marketing Organization\" NY, \"John Wiley\", 1961, p 10-11

30 см \"Statistical Abstract of US\", 1982-1983

Глава 14 Продвижение товаров:

стратегия коммуникации и стимулирования

1 Добавлено авторами по материалам проспекта фирмы «Пицца инн»

2 По исключением определения понятия «стимулирование сбыта», все остальные заимствованы из: \"Marketing Definitions: a Glossary of Marketing Terms\" Chicago, American Marketing Association, 1960 В поня ятие «стимулирование сбыта» Американская ассоциация маркетинга помимо поощрительных программ включает такие средства распространения маркетинговой информации, как экспозиции, показы, выставки и демон трации, Которые можно скорее классифицировать как формы рекламы, личной продажи или пропаганды Некоторые теоретики маркетинга предлагают Дополнить в качестве пятой составляющей комплекса стимулировани я «упаковку», тогда как другие рассматривают ее как одну из составных частей товарара.

3 См.: Michael L Ray and William L Wilkie \"Fear: the Potential of an Appeal Neglected by Marketing\" - Journal of Marketing January 1970, p 55-56; Brian Sternthal and C Samuel Craig \"Feal Appeals Revisited and Revised\" - Journal of Consumer Research December 1974 p 22-34

4 Brian Sternthal and C Samuel Craig \"Humor in Advertising\" - Journal of Marketing October 1973, p 12-18

5 Carl I Hovland and Wallace Mandell \"An Experimental Comparison\" - Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology July 1952, p 581-588

6 См.: С I Hovland, AA Lumsdaine and FD Sheffield \"Experiments on Mass Communication\", vol 3 Princeton, NJ, \"Prinston University Press\", 1948, chap 8

7 Более подробно об этом см: James F Engel, Roger D Blackwell and David T Kollat ??\"Consumer Behavior\", 3d ed Hinsdale, III, \"Dryden Press\", 1978, p 346-348

8 См.: Thomas S Robertson \"Innovative Behavior and Communication\" NY, \"Holt, Rinehart

9 cm,: Philip Kotler \"Atmospherics as a Marketing Tool\" - Journal of Retailing Winter 1973/74, p 48 -64

10 PP Lazarfeld, B Berelson and H Gaudet \"The People's Choice\", 2d ed NY, \"Columbia University Press\", 1948, p 151

11 Herbert C Kelman and Carl I Hovland \"Reinstatement of the Communication in Delayed Measurement of Opinion Change\" - Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology 48, 1953, p 327 -335 \"- Fortune December 1956, p 123
13 Albert Wesley Frey \"How Many Dollars for Advertising\" NY, \"Ronald Press\", 1955, p 65

14 Ibid, p 49

15 См.: G Maxwell Ule «A Media Plan for\" Sputnik \"Cigarettes» - \"How to Plan Media Strategy\" American Association of Advertising Agencies, 1957 Regional Convention, p 41-52

16 См.: Sidney J Levy \"Promotional Behavior\" Glenview, III, \"Scott, Foresman\", 1971, chap 4

17 Ibid

18 Sales and Marketing Management February 23, 1981, p, 34

19 \"How Advertising Works in Today's Marketplace\" - \"The Morrill Study\" NY, \"McGraw-Hill\", 1971, p 4

20 \"What IBM Found about Ways to Influence Selling\" - Business Week December 5, 1959, p 69 -70 см также статью: Harold С Cash and William J Crissy \"Comparison of Advertising and Selling\" -,, The Psychology of Selling \", vol 12 Flushing, NY, Personal Development Associat tes, 1965tes, 1965.

Глава 15 Продвижение товаров:

реклама, стимулирование сбыта и пропаганда

1 Bob Spitz \"Caution: Men at Work on Men at Work\" - Esquire July 1983, p 105 -109; Kurt Loder \"Men at Work: Out to Lunch\" - Rotting Stone June 23, 1983, p 16 -19, 87, 88

2Данные об объеме и структуре рекламной деятельности и ста крупнейший общенациональных рекламодателей взяты из номеров журнала «Адвертайзинг эйдж» от 16 февраля и 10 сентября 1981 г и «Краткого стать истического обзора США за 1982 -1983 гг »»

3 См.: Russell H Colley \"Defining Advertising Goals for Measured Advertising Results\" NY, Association of National Advertisers, 1961

4 См.: William L Wilke and Paul W Farris \"Comparison Advertising: Problem and Potential\" - Journal of Marketing October 1975, p 7 -15

5 См.: Russell L Ackoff and James R Emshoff \"Advertising Research at Anheuser-Busch; Inc (1963 -1968)\" - Sloan Management Review Winter 1975, p 1-15

6 John C Maloney \"Marketing Decisions and Attitude Research\" - \"Effective Marketing Coordination\", ed George L Baker, Jr Chicago, American Marketing Association, 1961, p 595 -618

7 Dik Warren Twedt \"How to Plan New Products, Improve Old Ones, and Create Better Advertising\" - Journal of Marketing January 1969, p 53 -57

8 См.: William A Mindak and H Malcolm Вуbee \"Marketing's Application to Fund Raising\" - Journal of Marketing July 1971, p 13 -18

9 См.: L Greenland \"Is This the Era of Positioning?\" - Advertising Age May 29, 1972

10 Philip H Dougherty «Bad 'Pulses' the Market» - New York Times, February 18, 1975, p 40

11 см: David BMontgomery and Alvin J Silk \"Estimating Dynamic Effects of Market Communications Expenditures\" - Management Science June 1972, p 485 -501

12 см Rober D Buzzell \"EI Du Pont de Nemours l of Business Administration, Harvard University, 1964, p 157 -179. 157 —179.

13 См.: Roger A Strang \"Sales Promotion - Fast Growth, Faulty Management\" - Harvard Business Review July-August 1976, p 115 -124

14 Ibid, p 116 -119

15 См.: Roger A Strang, Robert M Prentice and Alden G Clayton \"The Relationship between Advertising and Promotion in Brand Strategy\" Cambridge, Mass, Marketing Science Institute, 1975, chap 5

16 Strang \"Sales Promotion\", p 124

17 Большинство определений в этом разделе основаны на материалах работы: John F Luick and William Lee Siegler \"Sales Promotion and Modern Merchandising\" NY, \"McGraw-Hill\", 1968

18 Более подробно об этом можно прочесть в работе: Carl-Magnus Seipel \"Premiums - Forgotten by Theory\" - Journal of Marketing April 1971, p 26 -34

19 См.: Fred C Allvine \"The Future for Trading Stamps and Games\" - Journal of Marketing January 1969, p 45 -52

20 см \"Our L'eggs Fit Your Legs\" - Business Week March 27, 1972

21 См.: Walter A Gaw \"Specialty Advertising\" Chicago, Specialty Advertising Association, 1970

22 См.: Suzette Cavanaugh \"Setting Objectives and Evaluating the Effectiveness Of Trade Show Exhibits\" - Journal of Marketing October 1976, p 100 -105

23 Rusell D Bowman \"Merchandising and Promotion Grow Big in Marketing World\" - Advertising Age December 1974 p 21

24 См.: Strang \"Sales Promotion\", p 120

25 См.: George Black \"Planned Industrial Publicity\" Chicago, \"Putman Publishing\", 1952, p 3

26 см: Arthur M Merims \"Marketing's Stepchild: Products Publicity\" - Harvard Business Review November-December 1972

Глава 16 Продвижение товаров:

личная продажа и управление сбытом

1 Michael Waldholz «How a 'Detail Man' Promotes New Drugs to Tennessee Doctors» - Wall Street Journal, November 8, 1982

2 Robert N McMurry \"The Mystique of Super-Salesmanship\" - Harvard Business Review March-April 1961, p 114

3 См.: William R Dixon \"Redetermining the Size of the Sales Force: a Case Study\" - \"Changing Perspectives in Marketing Management\", ed Marting R Warshaw Ann Arbor, University of Michigan, 1962, p 58

4 Roger M Pegram \"Selling and Servicing the national Account\" NY, Conference Board, 1972

5 William H Kaven \"Managing the Major Sale\" NY, American Management Association, 1971; Benson P Shapiro and Ronald S Posner \"Making the Major Sale\" - Harvard Business Review March-April 1976, p 68-78

6 См.: Walter J Talley \"How to Design Sales Territories\" - Journal of Marketing January 1961, p 7-13

7 См.: Marketing News February 5 1982, p 1

8 Обследование проводилось нью-йоркским «Клубом руководителей служб сбыта», а в его результатах было рассказано в журнале Business Week, February 1, 1964, в 52

9 McMurry \"Mystique of Super - Salesmanship\", p 117

10 Ibid, p 118

11 David Mayer and Herbert M Greenberg \"What Makes a Good Salesman\" - Harvard Business Review July-August 1964, p 119 -125

12 \"Double-Digit Hikes in 1974 Sales Training Costs\" - Sales and Marketing Management January 6, 1975, p 54

13 Рассказ о процессе продажи частично основан на материалах книги: WJ Е Crissy, William H Cunningham and Isabella С М Cunningham \"Selling: the Personal Force m Marketing\" NY, \"John Wiley\", 1977, p p 19-29, p. 19—29.

14 Mark Hanan \"Join the Systems Sell and You Can't Be Beat\" - Safe and Marketing Management August 21, 1972, p 44 см также: Mark Hanan, James Cribbin and Herman Heiser \"Consultative Selling\" NY, American Management Association, 1976

Глава 17 Стратегия, планирование, контроль

1 Melville С Branch \"The Corporate Planning Process\" NY, American Management Association, 1962, p 48 -49

2 См.: Peter Drucker \"Management: Tasks, Responsibilities, Practices\" NY, \"Harper

3Theodore Levitt \"Marketing Myopia\" - Harvard Business Review July-August 1960, p 45 -56

4 Полезные сведения о постановке задач можно почерпнуть в работе Charles H Granger \"The Hierarchy of Objectives\" - Harvard Business Review May-June 1964, 63 -74

5 H Igor Ansoff \"Strategies for Diversification\" - Harvard Business Review September-October 1957, p 113 -124

6 Примеры эмпирических исследований на основе эмпирически подобранных функций реакции сбыта можно найти в следующих работах: Doyle L Weiss \"Determinants of Market Share\" - Journal of Marketing Research August 1968, p 290-295; Donald E Sexton, Jr \"Estimating Marketing Policy Effects on Sales of a Frequently Purchased Product\" - Journal of Marketing Research August 1970, p 338-347; Jean-Jacques Lambin \"A Computer On-Line Marketing Mix Model\" - Journal of Marketing Research May 1972, p 119 -126

7 См.: Russell Ackoff and James R Emshoff \"Advertising Research at Anheuser-Busch\" - Sloan Management Review Winter 1975, p 1 -15

8 См.: Philip Kotler \"A Guide to Gathering Expert Estimates\" - Business Horizons October 1970, p 79-87

9 См.: Philip Kotler \"Marketing Decision Making\" NY, \"Holt, Rinehart

10 Более подробно об этом см: James M Hulbert and Norman EToy \"A Strategic Network for Marketing Control\" - Journal of Marketing April 1977, p 12 -20

11 Об использовании ЭТИХ методов применительно к деятельности сети гостиниц рассказывается в работе Arthur J Daltas \"Protecting Service Markets with Consumer Feedback\" - Cornell Hotel and Restaurant Administration Quarterly May 1977, p 73 -77

12 Основной материал см в книге: Donald RLongman and Michael Schiff \"Practical Distribution Cost Analysis\" Homewood, III Richard D Irwin \", 1955

13 Более подробно об этом см в статье: Philip Kotler, William Gregor and William Rodgers \"The Marketing Audit Comes of Age\" - Sloan Management Review Winter 1977, p 25-43 Методика проведения предварительной ревизии маркетинга описана в работе: Philip Kotler \"From Sales Obsesion to Marketing Effectiveness\" - Harvard Business Review November-December 1977, p 67-75

Глава 18 Международный маркетинг

1 Добавлено автором на основе следующих материалов \"Brazil: Campbell Soup Fails to Make It to the Table\" - Business Week October 12, 1981; \"Brazil: Gerber Abandons a Baby-Food Market\" - Business Week February 8, 1982

2 См.: \"The Reluctant Exporter\" - Business Week April 10, 1978, p 54-66

3 Bureau of Economic Analysis, US Department of Commerce

4 См.: Warren J Keegan \"Multinational Product Planning: New Myths and Old Realities\" - \"Multinational Product Management\" Cambridge, Mass, Marketing Science Institute, 1976, p 18

5 Система оценки политической стабильности разных стран приводится в работе: FT Наnеr \"Rating Investment Risks Abroad\" - Business Horizons April 1979, p 18 -23

6 Дополнительные примеры подобного рода можно найти в работе: David A Ricks, Marilyn Yс Fu and Jeffery S Arpan \"International Business Blunders\" Columbus, Ohio, \"Grid\", 1974

7 I gal Ayal and Jehiel Zif \"Market Expansion Strategies in Multinational Marketing\" - Journal of Marketing Spring 1979, p 84 -94

8 James K Sweeney \"A Small Company Enters the European Market\" - Harvard Business Review September-October 1970, p 127 -128

9 См.: David SR Leighton \"Deciding When to Enter International Markets\" - \"Handbook of Modern Marketing\", ed Victor P Вuell NY, \"McGraw-Hill\" 1970, p 23 -28

10 Рассказ о стратегиях выхода построен в основном на материалах книги: Gordon E Miracle and Gerald S Albaum \"International Marketing Management\" Homewood, III, \"Richard D Irwin\", 1970, chaps 14-16

11 Warren J Keegan \"Multinational Product Planning: Strategic Alternatives\" - Journal of Marketing January 1969, p 58-62

12 Lоuis T We11s, Jr \"A Product Life Cycle for International Trade?\" - Journal of Marketing July 1968, p 1-6

13 См.: Miracle and Albaum \"International Marketing Management\", p 317-319

14 См.: William D Hartley \"How to Do It: Cumbersome Japanese Distribution System Stumps US Concerns\" - Wall Street Journal, March 2, 1972, p 1, 8

15 Описание систем распределения ряда стран приводится в статье Wadi-Nambiaratchi \"Channels of Distribution in Developing Economies\" - Business Quarterly Winter 1965, p 74-82

16 Более подробно об этом см в статье: Arieh Goldman \"Outreach of Consumers and the Modernization of Urban Food Retailing in Developing Countries\" - Journal of Marketing October 1974 p 8-16

17 Yoram Wind, Susan P Douglas, Howard V Perlmutter \"Guide-lines for Developing International Marketing Strategies\" - Journal of Marketing April 1973, p 14-23

Глава 19 Маркетинг услуг и маркетинг

в сфере некоммерческой деятельности

1 \"Services Grow While the Quality Shrinks\" - Business Week October 15, 1971, p 50

2 Хороший подробный рассказ о системе контроля качества, практикуемой сетью отелей «Мариотт», содержится в статье: GM Hostage \"Quality Control in a Service Business\" - Harvard Business Review July-August 1975, p 98-106

3 См.: W Earl Sasser \"Match Supply and Demand in Service Industries\" - Harvard Business Review November-December 1976, p 133-140

4 См.: Dan RE Thomas \"Strategy is Different in Service Businesses\" - Harvard Business Review July-August 1978, p 161

5 См.: Daniel T Carroll \"Ten Commandments for Bank Marketing\" - Bankers Magazine Autumn 1970, p 74-80, а также G Lynn Shostack \"Banks Sell Services - Not Things\" - Bankers Magazine Winter 1977, p 40-45

6 Public Relations News October 27, 1947

7 Обоснование этого довода см в статье: Philip Kotler and William Mindak \"Marketing and Public Relations\" - Journal of Marketing, October 1978, p 13-20

8 В других способах маркетинга услуг Специализированное организации обслуживания см: Philip Kotler and Richard A Connor, Jr \"Marketing Professional Services\" - Journal of Marketing January 1977, p 71-76

9 Carol Oppenheim \"Bucky Dent: the Selling of a Sudden Superstar\" - Chicago Tribune December 16, 1978, sec 2, p 1

10 \"In the Groove at Mercury Records\" - Chicago Daily News October 16, 1976

11 John E Cooney \"Eddie Fisher Discovers That Regaining Fame Is a Daunting Goal?\" - Wall Street Journal, February 20, 1978, p 1

12 Theodore White \"The Making of the President 1960\", NY, \"Atheneum\", 1961, а также Joe McGinness \"The Selling of the President 1968\" NY, \"Trident Press\", 1969

13 См.: E Glick \"The New Methodology\" Washington DC, American Institute for Political Communication, 1967, p 1; Philip Kotler and Neil Коtler \"Business Marketing for Political Candidates\" - Campaigns and Elections Summer 1981, p 24-33

14 Рассказ о маркетинге «города-новостройки» Вудлендсе в штате Техас приводится в работе: Betsy D Gelb and Ben M Enis \"Marketing a City of the Future\" - \"Marketing is Everybody's Business\" Santa Moni ica Calif, \"Goodyear\", 1977 1977.

15 См.: Scott Cutlip and Allen H Center \"Effective Public Relations\" 3d ed Englewood Cliffs, NJ, \"Prentice-Hall\", 1964, p 10

16 См.: Philip Kotler and Gerald Zaltman \"Social Marketing: An Approach to Planned Social Change\" - Journal of Marketing July 1971, p 3-12

17 См.: Eduardo Roberto \"Strategic Decision - Marking in a Social Program: The Case of Family - Planning Diffusion\" Lexington, Mass, \"Lexington Books\", 1975

18 См.: Karl E Henion II \"Ecological Marketing\" Columbus, Ohio, \"Grid\", 1976

Глава 20 Маркетинг и общество

1 По материалам работы: Peter Т Hutchinson, Don E Parkinson and Charles B Weinberg \"Water Conservation in Palo Alto\" - Christopher H Lovelock and Charles B Weinberg, eds \"Cases in Public and Nonprofi it Marketing \"Palo Alto, Calif,\" Scientific Press \", 1971, p 183-196p. 183—196.

2Paul W Stewart and J Frederick Dewhurst with Louis Field \"Does Distribution Cost Too Much?\" NY, Twentieth Century Fund, 1939

3 Jessica Mitford \"The American Way of Death\" NY, \"Simon

4 \"Rattles, Pings, Dents, Leaks, Creaks - And Costs\" - Newsweek November 25, 1968, p 92

5 Ibid

6 \"The Breakfast of Fatties?\" - Chicago Today July 24, 1970

7 Gerald В Та1lman \"Planned Obsolescence as Marketing and Economic Policy\" - \"Advancing Marketing Efficiency\", ed LH Stockman Chicago, American Marketing Association, 1958, p 27-39

8 David Caplovitz \"The Poor Pay More\" NY, \"Free Press\", 1963

9 Речь, произнесенная на юридическом факультете Университета им Вандербильта и Опубликованная в журнале «Маркетинг ньюс», август 1, 1968, с 11, 15

10 Там же

11 Более подробно об этом см в книге: Alan R Andreasen \"The Disadvantaged Customer\" NY, \"Free Press\", 1975

12 John Kenneth Galbraith \"The Affluent Society\" Boston, \"Houghton Mifflin\", 1958, p 255

13 Из рекламного объявления журнала «Факт», Который сам не принимает рекламы

14 Mark Hanan \"Corporate Growth through Venture Management\" - Harvard Business Review January - February, 1969, p 44

15 \"FTC v Procter

16 См.: Morris Adelman \"The A Quarterly Journal of Economics May 1949, p 238

17 Более подробно об этом см в работе: Philip Kotler \"What Consumerism Means for Marketers\" - Harvard Business Review May-June 1972, p 48-57, а также в работе Paul N Bloom and Stephen A Greyser \"The Maturing of Consumerism\" - Harvard Business Review November-December 1981, p 130-139

18 Rachel Carson \"Silent Spring\" Boston, \"Houghton Mifflin\", 1962

19 Paul R Ehrlich and Ann H Ehilich \"Population, Resources, Environment: Issues in Human Ecology\" San Francisco, \"WH Freeman\", 1970

20 Donnella H Meadows, Dennis L Meadows, Jorgen Randers, and William H Behrens Рассекреченный Микола \"The Limits to Growth\" NY, \"Universe Books\", 1972

21 Высказывание Гордона В Персона приводится в том виде, как оно цитируется в статье: \"Flavored Algae from the Sea?\" - Chicago Sun- Times, February 3, 1965, p 54

22 Earl L Bailey \"Formulating the Company's Marketing Policies: a Survey\" NY, Conference Board Experiences in Marketing Management 1968, № 19, p 3



 
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